Growth & Nutrition

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Research Publications

Bertram JEA, Gosline JM. Functional design of horse hoof keratin: the moculation of mechanical properties through hydration effects, Journal of Experimental Biology 1987; 130:121-136

Bolliger C, Geyer H. Morphology and histochemistry of the equine hoof. [German], Pferdeheilkunde 1992; 8:269

Bragulla H, Budras KD, Reilly JD. Fetal development of the white line (zona alba) of the equine hoof., Equine Veterinary Journal Supplement 1998; 26:22-26

Buffa EA, Berg SS, Verstraete FJM, Swart NGN. Effect of dietary biotin supplement on equine hoof horn growth rate and hardness, Equine Veterinary Journal 1992; 24:472-474

Butler KD, Hintz HF. Effect of level of feed intake and geletin supplementation on growth and quality of hoofs if ponies, Journal of Animal Science 1977; 44:257-261

Coenen M, Spitzlei S. Investigations on the composition of hoof horn in relation to age, breed and quality. [German], Pferdeheilkunde 1996; 12:279-283

Daradka M, Pollitt CC. Epidermal cell proliferation in the equine hoof wall, Equine Veterinary Journal 2004; 36:236-241

Dittrich JR, Flemming JS, Minardi I. Effect of different amounts of biotin supplement on growth, structure and soundness of hooves of horses 1 to 2 years old. [Portuguese], Revista do Setor de Ciencias Agrarias 1994; 13:135-144

Ekfalck A, Funkquist B, Jones B, Obel N. Incorporation of L-<sup(75)>Se-cystine in tissue fragments from the matrix of the hoof and the claw-a tool for studying the pathogenesis of laminitis, Equine Veterinary Journal 1985; 17:377-380

Ekfalck A. Amino acids in different layers of the matrix of the normal equine hoof. Possible importance of the amino acid pattern for research on laminitis, Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B 1990; 37:1-8

Ekfalck A, Appelgren LE, Funkquist B, Jones B, Obel N. Distribution of labelled cysteine and methionine in the matrix of the stratum medium of the wall and in the laminar layer of the equine hoof, Journal of Veterinary Medicine - Series A 1990; 37:481-491

Ekfalck A, Jones B, Obel N. Possible importance for laminitis research of recent studies on substances influencing the differentiation of cultured keratinocytes, Journal of Veterinary Medicine - Series A 1991; 38:721-727

Ernst R. The importance of the dermis to the hard component formation of the equine hoof, Acta Anatomica 1954; 22:15-48

Felbinger U. Biotin level in the blood of horses after the administration of Gabiotan 5. [German], Praktische Tierarzt 1987; 68:22-23

Frohnes AK, Budras KD. Endogenous influences on the horn quality from the sole, bulb and frog segments of the horseshoe. Part II: Intra and intercellular factors. [German], Pferdeheilkunde 2001; 17:437-443

Frohnes AK, Budras KD. Endogenous influences on the horn quality from the sole, bulb and frog segments of the horseshoe. [German], Pferdeheilkunde 2001; 17:429-436

Geyer H, Leu U. Effect of biotin treatment on growth and quality of horn in hooves and on biotin in plasma of horses. [French], Journees de la Recherche Chevaline 1988; 14:192-202

Geyer H, Leu U. The influence of biotin treatment on the growth and quality of hoof horn and on plasma concentrations of biotin in the horse. [French], Quoi de neuf en matiere d'etudes et de recherches sur le cheval? 1988; 14:192-202.

Geyer H, Schulze J. The long-term influence of biotin supplementation on hoof horn quality in horses, Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde 1994;136:137-149

Grosenbaugh DA, Amoss MS, Hood DM, Morgan SJ, Williams JD. Epidermal growth factor-mediated effects on equine vascular smooth muscle cells, American Journal of Physiology 1988; 255:C447-C451

Grosenbaugh DA, Amoss MS, Hood DM, Williams JD. EGF [epidermal growth factor] receptor-binding activity in the urine of normal horses and horses affected by chronic laminitis, Domestic Animal Endocrinology 1990; 7:277-289

Grosenbaugh DA, Hood DM. Keratin and associated proteins of the equine hoof wall, American Journal of Veterinary Research 1991; 53:1859-1863

Grosenbaugh DA, Hood DM, Amoss MS, Williams JD. Characterization and distribution of epidermal growth factor receptors in equine hoof wall laminar tissue: comparison of normal horses and horses affected with chronic laminitis, Equine Veterinary Journal 1991; 23:201-206

Grosenbaugh DA, Hood DM, Roberts ED. Loss of EGF-mediated inhibition of keratin synthesis in horses affected by chronic laminitis, Growth Regulation 1991

Hashimoto Y, Reese S, Bragulla H, Budras KD. Lectin-histochemical investigation of the epidermis of the skin and hoof in the horse. [German], Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Veterinary Medicine Series C 1992; 21:238-245

Hood DM, Pope M, Grosenbaugh DA. Effect of biotin in promoting hoof wall keratin synthesis, Proceedings of the Hoof Project 1997; 1:60-64

Josseck H, Zenker W, Geyer H. Hoof horn abnormalities in Lipizzaner horses and the effect of dietary biotin on macroscopic aspects of hoof horn quality, Equine Veterinary Journal 1995; 27:175-182

Josseck H. Genetic aspects of hoof quality, Equine Veterinary Journal 1995; 27:414-

Konig B, Budras KD. Structure and clinical-functional implication of the coronary horn stratification in relation to horn maturation, ageing and decay processes in the equine hoof. [German], Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 2003; 110:438-444

Larsson B, Obel N, Aberg B. On the biochemistry of karatinization in the martix of the horse's hoof in normal conditions and in laminitis, Nordisk Veterinaermedicin 1956; 8:761-776

Leach DH, Oliphant LW. Degradation of annular gap junctions of the equine hoof wall, Acta Anatomica 0984; 120:214-219

Mobasheri A, Critchlow PD, Clegg PD, Carter SD, Canessa CM. Chronic equine laminitis is charactericsed by loss of GLUT1, GLUT4, and ENaC positive laminar keratinocytes., Equine Veterinary Journal 2004; 36:248-254

Mungall BA, Pollitt CC. Thermolysin activates equine lamellar hoof matrix metalloproteinases, Journal of Comparative Pathology 2002; 126:9-16

Negishi T, Miyaki H, Kameya T. Protein content and lipid constituents of the hoofs of horses. [Japanese], Experimental Reports of Equine Health Laboratory 1977; 14:22-28

Neville RF, Hollands T, Collins SN, Keyte FV. Evaluation of uninary TBARS in normal and chrionic laminitic ponies, Equine Veterinary Journal 2004; 36:292-294

Pellmann R, Reese S, Bragulla H. Relationships between the structure and quality of equine hoof horn - a potential procedure for studying disorders of keratinisation. [German], Monatshefte fur Veterinarmedizin 1993; 48:623-630

Pollitt CC. An autoradiographic study of equine hoof growth, Equine Veterinary Journal 1990; 22:366-368

Reilly JD, Hopegood L, Gould L, Devismes L. Effect of a supplementary dietary evening primrose oil mixture hoof growth, hoof growth rate, and hoof lipid fractions in horses: a controlled blinded trial, Equine Verinary Journal Supplement 1998; 26:58-65

Ryan TP. Hoof Growth in normal and laminitic horses, Forge 1989; 5:11

Samata T, Matsuda M. Studies on the amino acid compositions of the equine body hair and the hoof, Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science 1988; 50:333-340

Sasimowski E, Budzynski M, Lipecka C, Moczybroda J, Kapron M. Chemical composition of the hoof horn of Thoroughbred and heavy draught horses entered in Polish stud books. [Polish], Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych Seria B Zootechniczna 1987; 103:131-147

Wattle O. Cytokeratins of the equine hoof wall, chestnut and skin:bio and immunohisto-chemistry, Equine Veterinary Journal Supplement 1998; 26:66-80

Wattle OS. Cytokeratins of the matrices of the chestnut (torus carpeus) and periople in horses with acute laminitis, American Journal of Veterinary Research 2001; 62:425-432

Wunn D, Wardrop KJ, Meyers K, Kramer J, Ragle C. Culture and characterization of equine terminal arch endothelial cells and hoof keratinocytes, American Journal of Veterinary Research 1999; 60:128-132

Zenker W, Josseck H, Geyer H. Histological and physical assessment of poor hoof horn quality in Lipizzaner horses and a therapeutic trial with biotin and a placebo, Equine Veterinary Journal 1995; 27:183-191


Geyer H, Josseck H, Zenker W. Hoof horn changes in Lipizzan horses: new results of a blind study with biotin and a placebo, Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 1994; 23:51

Geyer H, Budras KD. Light microscopic and physical findings in normal and pathologically changed crown horn of the equine hoof and effects of biotin treatment on hoof quality. [German], Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 1989; 13:271

Hood DM, Pope M, Grosenbaugh DA. Effect of biotin in promoting hoof wall keratin synthesis. Proceedings of the Association of Equine Sports Medicine 1995; 1:40-41

Josseck H, Schulze J. Hoof problems in Lipizzaner horses and preliminary results from experiments on treatment with biotin. [German], Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Veterinary Medicine Series C 1991; 20:271

Mosimann W. Horn formation on the horse's hoof. [German], Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Veterinary Medicine Series C 1978; 7:364

Mulling C, Bragulla H, Budras KD. The significance of the intercellular cementing substance for the quality of hoof horn, Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 1994; 23:56

Zenker W, Hulftegger AM. Changes in ultrastructure and strength of the hoof horn of Lipizzaner horses. [German], Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Veterinary Medicine Series C 1991; 20:279-280

Review Articles

Linden JE. The role of biotin in improving hoof condition of horses. 1992: 1: 24

Preuss F. Comparison investigation of epidermal cornification in specialized structures. in Stratum Corneum. Klaschka, F. 1991; 3-16

Case Reports and Case Series

Coenen M, Landes E, Assmann G. Selenium toxicosis in the horse - case report, Journal of Animal Physiology & Animal Nutrition 1998; 80:153-157

Frame SR, Harrington DD, Fessler J, Frame PF. Hereditary junctional mechanobullous disease in a foal, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1988; 193:1420-1424

Higami A. Occurrence of white line disease in performance horses fed on low-zinc and low-copper diets, Journal of Equine Science 1999; 10:1-5

Kempson SA. Ultrastructural observation on the response of equine hoof defects to dietary supplementation with Farrier's Formula, Veterinary Record 1990; 127:494-498

Kempson SA. Scanning electron microscope observations of hoof horn from horses with brittle feet, Veterinary Record 1987; 120:568-570

Schulze J, Scherf H. Clinical study of biotin therapy in horses. [German], Tierarztliche Umschau 1989; 44:187-190

Sheta EME. Effect of chronic laminitis on the hoof horn growth of Arabian horses, Veterinary Medical Journal Giza 2002; 50:419-425

Timm A (1993), Effect of feeding gelatin on skeletal, hair, cartilage and hoof growth of weaned foals. [German], Tierarztliche Hochschule 1993

Verschooten F, Moor Ad, Simoens P. An unusual case of overgrowth of the hooves in a pony, Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 1994; 14:324-328

Wintzer HJ. Influence of supplementary vitamin H (biotin) on growth and quality of hoof horn in horses. [German], Tierarztliche Praxis 1986; 14:495-500

Presentations and Clinical Summaries

Arnbjerg J. Trace element supplement for horses: a feeding trial. [Danish], Dansk Veterinaertidsskrift 1989; 72:454

Bowker RM. The growth and adaptive capabilities of the hoof wall and sole: Functional changes in response to stress. American Association of Equine Practitioners 2003; 49: 146-168

Coenen M, Spitzlei S. The composition of equine hoof horn with regard to its quality (hardness) and nutrient supply of horses, Proceedings of the fifteenth equine nutrition and physiology symposium, 1997; 209-212.

Comben N, Clark RJ, Sutherland DJ. Improving the integrity of hoof horn in equines by high-level dietary supplementaion with biotin. British Equine Veterinary Association.1983; 1-17

Eustace R. Factors affecting equine hoof horn growth rate and quality, Practice 1994; 16:129-131

Fracqueville M, Launois T, Goupil X. Lack of effect of isoxsuprine on hoof growth in horses. [French], Pratique Veterinaire Equine 1991; 23:63-64

Grosenbaugh DA, Hood DM. Practical equine hoof wall biochemistry, Equine Practice 1993; 15:8-14

Hood DM. Physiology of the foot and normal growth. Second International Equine Conference on Laminitis and Diseases of the Foot. 2003; 2:56-61

Kempson SA. The role of nutrition in the growth and structure of the hoof horn, Prevention, management and repair of trauma in transport animals 1991; 73:51-59.

Kempson SA. The adverse effect of certain dietary supplements on the structure and function of the hoof horn, Conference on equine sports medicine and science Cordoba, Spain 1998; 245-248.

Leu U. Comparative studies on the influence of orally administered biotin on the equine hoof horn. [German], Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde 1988; 130:5-17

Lockard AJ, Reinertson EL. Stimulation of equine hoof growth using a counter-irritant, Iowa State University Veterinarian 1986; 48:99-101

Ott EA, Johnson EL. Effect of trace mineral proteinates on growth and skeletal and hoof development in yearling horses, Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2001; 21:287-291

Pollitt CC. Clinical anatomy and physiology of the normal equine foot. Rose, R. J. Publication, Veterinary Continuing Education, Massey University 1990; 171-217

Reilly JD, Collins S, Cope B, Hopegood L, Latham RJ. Properties of the hoof wall and responses to nutrition. International Conference on Equine Laminitis 1998; 9-10

Reilly JD, Newlyn H, Cope B, Latham RJ, Collins S. Comparison of growth and growth rates in biotin and evening primrose oil supplemented hooves, from controlled and blinded trials, Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Lameness in Ruminants, Orlando, Florida, 2002; 273

Rowe JB. Preventing feed-related founder. International research conference on equine laminitis 1998; 5-7

Swenson CK, Hood DM. Balanced nutrition key for equine foot maintenance, Feedstuffs 2003; 75:10-11

Swenson CK. Nutrient requirements of the foot. Second International Eqiune Conference on Laminitis and Diseases of the Foot 2003; 2:62-73

Theses and Dissertations

Becker C. Growth of hoof horn, as influenced by various dietary additives and substances applied to the hoof. [German], Fachbereich Veterinarmedizin, Freie Universitat, Berlin, 1998

Frohnes AK. Structure, keratinization and horn quality in the sole, frog and heel of the equine hoof. [German], Fachbereich Veterinarmedizin, Freie Universitat, Berlin, 1999

Grosenbaugh DA. The role of epidermal growth factor as a mediator of hyperplasia in equine laminitis. Texas A&M University 1989

Patan B. Seasonal variation in the formation, rate of wear and quality of hoof horn in Przewalski horses. [German], Saisonaler einfluss auf Hornbildungsrate,

Hornabrieb und Hornqualitat in der Hufwand von Przewalskipferden (Equus Ferus Przewalskii 2001

Spitzlei S. Composition of the hoof horn of horses: influence on horn quality and the effect of diet. [German], Tierarztliche Hochschule, Hannover, 1996